However, some prepositional phrases require their object to be in the accusative case instead. = "I'm gonna hit your face big-time" or "I'm gonna smash your face" or "I'm gonna hit your face a lot."). It is believed that the accusative case originally had a "local" function; it was the case that indicated the end or ultimate goal of an action or movement. With the gerund and the gerundive, the preposition ad is used with the accusative to express purpose. A word in the genitive case showing possession can be translated either way. If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this site, please contact us for assistance via email at. Because Latin uses cases to mark the subject and the object of a sentence, word order does not matter. https://writingexplained.org/grammar-dictionary/accusative-case Here, eo is still an intransitive verb meaning "I go" and Romam is still the "end of motion" (not the direct object). Other names. I sing a song = intransitive verb, "I sing", + accusative that simply renames the activity of singing, "a song." Finally, if the girl isn't good, but rather wild: Even though puella is first declension, ferox remains third declension. In a sentence, the accusative is the "what" - in English grammar, this is known as the direct object. Translated as "of____" or "___'s" Example: Cura matris eam egit. For example, "in the sky" is translated "in caelo," using the ablative case, but "to the city" is translated "ad urbem," using the accusative case. Another example from the classical world: the Latin peto originally meant "I … SOLUTION • Latin/Lesson 5-Accusative • Find the Nominative and Accusative (if present) in each the sentence. Most other verbs take the 'accusative' case. Then translate. accusative to describe movement towards something; ablative to describe the position of something which is static; One of the main differences between medieval Latin and Classical Latin is the increased use of prepositions. Grammar: The Accusative . From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. This cognate (internal) accusative can be modified by adjectives: I sing a loud song. Examples of the Accusative Case She stroked the cat. = "Are you coming to Verona?" a similar, but more limited rule, in English. The characteristics of an accusative case often entail (such as in Latin) what generally is termed the nominative case. Note that Latin does not have a separate form for the possessive genitive (Marcus's dog vs The dog of Marcus), as English does. This page was last edited on 21 February 2018, at 22:27. The ablative case is the most complex of the cases in Latin. The noun that serves as a direct object and that is declined in the accusative case plays no active role in the situation determined by the verb and by the subject of the sentence. In the masculine and feminine singular it always ends in -m; (cp. In Classical Latin, a phrase would be given using the noun with the appropriate case … It may be used by itself or as the object of prepositions and it is commonly used to express (with or without the aid of a preposition) ideas translated into English by the prepositions "from" (that is, an idea of separation and origin), "with" and … Barney will draw him tomorrow. If the sentence were written differently - "The mother cared, and it drove her." puer i liber (The boy ’s book). Consider: Bonus, a first and second declension adjective, is masculine, nominative, and singular to agree with puer, the word it is describing. Do you know what it is? EXERCISE • Lesson 5-Accusative • Find the Nominative and Accusative (if present) in each the sentence. 1) it could be a development of the "goal" function of the accusative: the goal of the journey, Romam venit, being very much the same as the space traversed, decem milia passuum venit. This adverbial usage has several possible origins, of which two are sufficient for our purposes. Without a preposition, one finds the supine in the accusative case used after verbs of motion to express purpose. SOLUTION • Latin/Lesson 5-Accusative • Give the accusative singular. 414 University Hall c) Genitive: The Genitive case denotes ownership, and has the same meaning as (-‘s) in English:. As you learned in the last lesson, the verb 'esse' (to be) usually takes the nominative case, because then the word after it is a complement. Usually, the "place to which" is made the object of a preposition, but in the cases of cities, towns and small islands, of domus and of rus the accusative case is used alone: Veronam venis? We know this in part because the Greek word, petomai, is related and it means "I fly." - then mother would be the subject. Another space-time expression involves the accusative case and shows the extent of time or space in which something occurs. This is the origin of the Direct Object. puell ae liber (The girl ’s book). The words bonus and ferocem become boni and feroces to agree with the plurals pueri and canes. Thus, box is the direct object, and when we translate it into Latin: Cistam, then, is in the accusative, because it is the direct object. Prepositions in Latin most often make their nouns take the ablative case. --> The care of the mother drove her . As you learned in the last lesson, the verb 'esse' (to be) usually takes the nominative case, because then the word after it is a complement. The accusative of place to which is a vestige of the original meaning of the accusative case. How small does the small island have to be? Go to: Accusative Case. We have a similar, but more limited rule, in English. Accusative case is the case used for a noun or pronoun which is the object of a sentence. Take an example: "I'm gonna hit your face." Suddenly, the adjective becomes an adverb (the very adverb our third grade teachers told us not to use). Then translate. Latin Examples email@example.com, Designed and built by ASCTech Web Services, The Phaedon John Kozyris and Litsa Kozyris Travel Award, The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Greek and Latin, Graduate Interdisciplinary Specialization: Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean, Graduate Program on Classical Antiquity and the Near East, The Miltiadis Marinakis Endowed Professorship of Modern Greek Language and Culture, Honoring the memory of Phaedon J. Kozyris, Visual Resources in the Teaching of Modern Greece, Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse. Again, when an adjective describes a noun in the accusative case, the adjective must agree in number, case, and gender. Direct object, indirect object or an object of a preposition are in the accusative case. If I "move swiftly and eagerly" and the end of my motion is "Rome", then I can say peto Romam. See table above. Thus, you can have a transitive verb ("Im gonna hit your face" = ego faciem tuam icturus sum) with an internal accusative (ego faciem istam multum percussurus sum. Originally it was the case that indicated the end or ultimate goal of an action. The preposition ab with the ablative is regularly used when the point from which a person or object is separated is not mentioned explicitly. This is the origin of the Direct Object. The basic function of specifying the end of movement means that the Accusative is attached especially to verbs of motion and to prepositions when they refer to motion. EXERCISE • Lesson 5-Accusative • Give the accusative plural. But notice what happens if we leave off the noun: I sing loud. Determine whether the adjective agrees with the substantive in all three categories: case, gender, number. Canem is accusative because it is the object of amat. Ferocem, a third declension adjective, is masculine, accusative, and singular to … The newly introduced verbs, ama-t, curri-t, and porta-t take the accusative as the 'object'. Examples of Adjectives Agreeing with the Nominative and Accusative Case, Grammatical Explanation Using English Sentences, Exercise 4: Find the Nominative and Accusative, https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Latin/Lesson_5-Accusative&oldid=3377061. Unless specified, any verb you look up in the dictionary will take the accusative, not the nominative. However, if a girl (puella) happened to love that boy: Bonus must become bona in order to modify puella, which is feminine. The word boy,which indicate the object of the action, is called object of the verb,and is in the objective relation(accusative case) to the verb 'struck'. Another example from the classical world: the Latin peto originally meant "I fly" and referred to swift, eager movement. By extension, the accusative is also used to give dimensions (how high, wide and deep something is). The accusative case is used to indicate the extent (of space) and the duration (of time): nec unum diem remoratus est = "and he did not wait for one day."