Social facts are objective and are capable of being perceived from outside. (b) The voluntary nature of a social fact should never be assumed beforehand. Secondly, if there were not occasional deviances or flouting’s of norms, there would be no change in human behaviour and equally important, no opportunities through which a society can either reaffirm the existing norms or else re-assess such behaviour and modify the norm itself. Things include all objects of knowledge that cannot be conceived by purely mental activity, those that require for their conception data from outside the mind, from observations and experiments, those which are, built up from the more external and immediately accessible characteristics to the less visible and more profound. Your IP: 134.209.42.211 In functional explanation the function of a social fact ought- always to be sought in its relation to some social end. Report a Violation, Biography of Emile Durkheim and his Works, The Contribution of “Emile Durkheim” Towards Sociology (1198 Words). This is because knowledge of the causes which bring a phenomenon into being can, under certain circumstances, allow us to derive some insight into its possible functions. The distinction between normal and the pathological plays an important role in Durkheim’s thought. There can be no psychological explanation of these facts. Sociological method as we practice it rests wholly on the basic principle that social facts must be studied as things, that is, as realities external to the individual. Free delivery in the US Read more here. Social facts are general because they are collective. After defining sociology as the scientific study of social facts, Durkheim then turned quite directly to the task of providing a set of rules whereby this scientific task could be carried out and accomplished. It was not, as Weber’s argument is sometimes misconstrued, just that Puritanism encouraged hard work (a strong work ethnic is certainly found in many non-European cultures). The most stringent formulation of the comparative method is to base it upon the method of “concomitant variations.”, 4. Structural components of society (Church and State), 3. Rules for distinguishing between “Normal” and “Pathological” Social facts. (a) Social facts should always be treated as if they are things. Thoughts and actions common to all the members of a society or a majority are not social because general, but general because social. (d) Observation of social facts should go beyond that of their individual manifestations. Table of Contents. Social facts are understood only by sociological laws. The one above was a large framework for descriptive, comparative and analytical study which was seen before in Spencer, Hobhouse and others. 3. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Morphological components of society (Population Distribution, Channels of Communication, housing arrangements etc.). Indubitably for sociology to be possible, it must above all have an object all its own. TOS 7. (e) Observation should seek always those external distinguishing characteristics about which there can be no doubt; which can be objectively perceived by others. 1. Normally, one would try to establish causes before specifying functions. But in addition to it Durkheim found it necessary to construct a ‘marked typology’—consisting of two extreme polarized models, in order to interpret the most significant pattern of change. He must throw off, once and for all, the yoke of these empiric categories which from long continued habit have become tyrannical. Hence social facts exhibit three characteristics: Social facts are ‘exterior’ to the individual and hence society is a reality above and apart from individual. 5. The aggregation of tribes themselves into confederations to form “poly-segmental societies simply compounded.”, 4. If offences against them were not punished, the strength of the sentiments necessary for social unity would not be preserved. If a phenomenon is normal, we have no grounds for seeking to eliminate it, even if it shocks us morally, on the other hand, if is pathological; we possess a scientific argument to justify projects of reform. Some of the most important rules of sociological methods according to Durkheim are as follows: “Rules of Sociological Methods” of Durkheim was published in the year 1895. 2: Rules for distinguishing between ‘Normal’ and “Pathological” Social facts: Durkheim classified social facts into Normal and Pathological social facts. Rules for Testing Sociological Explanations: For establishing sociological proofs. For a-full explanation of such a concomitance, and for a full test of such an explanation, the social facts in question should be studied in all social species. Just as an observable change in the colour or texture of a compound might indicate an underlying chemical reaction or relationship for a chemist, so the sociologists can observe changes in social indicators in order to examine relationships among social facts. Durkheim argued that we should always be critical of them when coming to the task of scientific .observation. The Rules of Sociological Method represents Emile Durkheim's manifesto for sociology. These are Suicide (1897) emphasizes statistical indicators, Division of Labour in Society (1893) relies on historical indicators and elementary forms of the Religious life (1912) involves a focus on ethnographic indicators. It was only possible to bring them together in the way that they have spontaneously been produced and compare and contrast them in some carefully controlled way, within the framework of some carefully constructed procedure. The methodological framework for all of his subsequent work was developed in his “The Rules of sociological methods.” He has successfully analyzed social facts which facing up to the methodological problems of .using empirical research in scientific study of society.

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